After the First World War, people who were dissatisfied with the rapid developments in science and technology, who loved nature and were worried about the complete destruction of morality, came together in Germany and took a stand against impressionism. The impressionists did not aim to transfer their spiritual movements to works of art; they only wanted to present reality, to convey what they saw. Everyone who reacted to the aesthetics of the Impressionists soon became interested in expressionist art.
Expressionism, an art movement in which nature is not conveyed as it is, but instead emotions and the inner world of the person are emphasized, emerged in Germany in the 20th century. The movement emphasizes the artist's unique vision and aims to express thought or emotion in the work of art, regardless of style.
Expressionism has gained a place in almost every branch of art and gathered representatives. The expressionist understanding of art, which found its place in art branches such as painting, literature, music, cinema, architecture, and sculpture, was adopted by people in a short time; artists such as Edvard Munch, James Ensor, Oscar Kokoschka, Franz Kafka and Robert Weine pioneered this movement.
In painting, the expressionist art movement is tried to be conveyed with distorted lines, shapes, and exaggerated colors. The famous painting The Scream, painted by Edvard Munch, is one of the most important and best-known representatives of the expressionism movement. The groups Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Horseman), founded in Germany, played an important role in the birth and development of the movement.
Looking at literature, one can observe that many novels written in German have an expressionist influence. Novels written in German by Franz Kafka have been characterized as expressionist. The movement, which was also influential in poetry, was adopted by artists such as Georg Trakl, Georg Heym, Ernst Stadler, Thomas Stearns Eliot and James Joyce.
When it comes to architecture, expressionism has parallels with the Bauhaus school, but also has its own unique dynamics. His individual and therefore emotional design approach is known as the most important examples of expressionist architecture.
Erich Mendelsohn's Einstein Tower in Potsdam, Berlin, and the interior decoration of the Große Schauspielhaus theater, also in Berlin, designed by Hans Poelzig, are known as the most important examples of expressionist architecture.
After the Nazi regime came to power, expressionist art disappeared. After the Second World War, expressionism was revived as a result of the loss of many artists in this war.
Today, expressionist art continues its influence as a fundamental artistic expression by identifying with cubist, minimalist or futurist approaches.
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